The lateral surface is gently concave. There is no evidence for a PCDL on either side of Cv7, but the centrum and neural arch is damaged on both sides in this region. In contrast, the anterior margins of the prepubes in S. mjosi (DNMH 29431) and Dacentrurus sp. In lateral view, the neural arch is slightly set back from the anterior articular facet. The posterior spines are slightly shorter than their anterior counterparts. Both Dr9 are essentially complete and are almost identical to Dr8. In anterior view, the prezygapophyses are more steeply angled than in D5, with the articular facets forming an angle of 30 degrees to vertical (Fig 23A). New information provided by the specimen concerns the morphology of the vertebrae, the iliosacral block and dermal armor. In medial view, the dorsal and central parts of the proximal plate are flat to gently concave whereas the ventral part is strongly convex. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138352.g019. Despite its status as one of the most iconic and easily recognizable dinosaurs, well-preserved remains of Stegosaurus are surprisingly rare. The crest extends for approximately 60% of humerus length before merging into the lateral surface of the shaft. In lateral view, the parapophysis, which is similar in morphology to that of D4, has migrated slightly dorsally on the neural arch so that it is located at the same level as the prezygapophyses (Fig 22C and 22D). The medial and lateral surfaces are straight. Two unguals are preserved. The lateral margins of the spine are therefore concave in anterior view, as in the anterior caudals of Loricatosaurus (MHNH(BR) 001; : pl. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138352.g061. This is most noticeable anteriorly (Fig 7A). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138352.g005. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click Consequently, the articular facets of the centrum are heart-shaped. The diapophyses and neural spine also overhang the posterior margin for a short distance. However, the absence of this tissue could be taken as equal evidence that NHMUK PV R36730 was either male or a non-gravid female. The articular surface of the pubic peduncle is transversely compressed and is not rugose. Cd20 is complete, but the right lateral and ventral sides of the centrum and the anterior articular facet are coated in plaster. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138352.g062. The atlas is a U-shaped ring: the neural arches do not meet dorsally and are not fused to each other (Fig 5A and 5B). This rib is dorsoventrally compressed, elongate and tapers distally. A, B, plate 10; C, D, plate 11 in A, C, left lateral and B, D, right lateral views.  proposed a bimodal distribution of proximal femur shape in Kentrosaurus might represent a sexual difference, but it is also possible that this observation captures a population-level difference rather than sexual dimorphism . The distal expansion is slightly wider than the proximal expansion in anterior view and both lie in the same plane. Photo Credit: Rachel Nichols Learn with flashcards, games, and more — for free. 2), but in contrast to the condition in Gigantspinosaurus (: fig 132 E, F) and Huayangosaurus (: figs 20 and 21) in which the tops of the anterior caudals are not expanded. In medial view the surface of the rib is gently convex. A, anterior, B, posterior, C, left lateral, D, right lateral, E, ventral and F, dorsal view.  considered that transverse expansion and bifurcation of the tops of the neural spines continued as far down the tail as Cd25 or 26 in Stegosaurus, but transverse expansion is only present until Cd17 or 18 in S. mjosi (DMNH 29431). The anterior articular facet of the centrum is gently concave, and the dorsal swelling is reduced in prominence relative to that of Cv4 (Fig 9A). In NHMUK PV R36730, the scapula and coracoid are fused on one side but appear to be unfused the other (though this is difficult to confirm due to the absence of the ‘unfused’ coracoid), perhaps suggesting that the individual was still growing when it died. The anterior surface is dorsoventrally compressed; it consists of two parasagitally positioned depressions separated by a vertical midline swelling, and is pitted and rugose. The posterior articular facet is also sub-circular in outline and flat with a small central pit (Fig 18B).  suggested that a true neural spine was not present on the anterior cervical vertebrae, but that a transversely narrow ridge was present in the same location. In context|anatomy|lang=en terms the difference between skeleton and postcranial is that skeleton is (anatomy) the system that provides support to an organism, internal and made up of bones and cartilage in vertebrates, external in some other animals while postcranial is (anatomy) relating to the portion of a vertebrate skeleton located behind and/or beneath the cranium. Proximal Phalanx Postcranial Skeleton Distal Shaft Proximal Epiphysis Medial Cuneiform These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. No, Is the Subject Area "Humerus" applicable to this article? In medial view, the shaft is flat and there are rugosities around the capitulum. In ventral view, the centra appear to have been waisted, with anteroposteriorly concave ventral and lateral surfaces that are not separated by breaks in slope but indistinguishably merge into one another (Fig 31A and 31B). No carpal elements or metacarpals were recovered. The distal part of the shaft is therefore offset at an angle of around 15 degrees from the long axis of the proximal part of the shaft. The acetabular region forms a sub-rectangular plate with a straight ventral margin, and curved posterior and dorsal margins in lateral view (Fig 71). Scale bar equal to 5 cm. The specimen is referred to S. stenops because it possesses characters 7 and 8 from the specific diagnosis. The ventral part of the posterior margin represents the ischiadic articular surface while the dorsal part represents the free acetabular margin. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138352.g080. The articular surface for the phalanges bifurcates into weakly developed lateral and medial ginglymi separated by a shallow groove. Chf, chevron facet; ns, neural spine. The anterior margin of the parapophysis is continuous with the anterior articular facet of the centrum. Cv6 is largely complete but strongly deformed and has been obliquely sheared so that the left side is higher than the right. The postcranial skeleton includes all the bones and cartilages caudal to the head skeleton; it is subdivided into axial components and appendicular components. No, Is the Subject Area "Ribs" applicable to this article? https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138352.g072. The cnemial crest is represented by a sharp ridge that extends ventrally from the anterodorsal margin to a point approximately one-third of the way down the length of the shaft, where it terminates in an anteriorly extending lip (Fig 73C and 73H). They are also inclined further dorsally than those of Cv3, and their articular facets are inclined at an angle of approximately 80 degrees to the horizontal (Fig 8C and 8D). In ventral view the centrum is slightly waisted. The left rib is not preserved. Spinosauridae (or spinosaurids, meaning "spined reptiles") is a family of theropod dinosaurs comprising up to thirteen known genera.They came into prominence during the Cretaceous period.Spinosaurid fossils have been recovered worldwide, including Africa, Europe, South America, Asia, and possibly Australia.Their remains have generally been attributed to the Early to Mid Cretaceous. Muséum Histoire Naturelle du Havre, Brun Collection, Le Havre, France; ML, Denver Museum of Nature and Science, Colorado, U.S.A.; HMNH, Postzygapophyses are reduced to small, flange-like processes. Scale bar equal to 5 cm. A second ridge extends from the posterior surface of the parapophysis posteroventrally to form the posterior surface of the neural arch. Scale bar equal to 5 cm. The articular facets of the postzygapophyses face ventrolaterally at an angle of about 70 degrees to the horizontal and are flat. The articular surface is oval in outline with the long axis trending transversely and is gently concave dorsoventrally. In lateral view the PRDL of NHMUK PV R36730 is absent and the prezygapophysis is separated from the rest of the neural arch by a distinct notch (Fig 19C). The specimen is referable to Stegosaurus stenops based on the possession of an edentulous anterior portion of the dentary and elevated postzygapophyses on the cervical vertebrae. Brigham Young University, Salt Lake City, U.S.A.; CEUM, The right tibia is attached to the astragalus by plaster although these two bones are not fused (Fig 73F–73I), while the left tibia is articulated with the fibula and astragalus and the elements were probably fused (Fig 73A–73E). Warren and Snell (1991) reviewed the known postcranial skeleton of stereospondyls, concluding The lateral surface of the centrum is divided into two concavities dorsally and ventrally which are separated by a gentle horizontal ridge that extends posteriorly from the parapophyses and increases in prominence to become a bulge proximal to the posterior articular facet (Fig 7C and 7D), as is also present in the holotype of S. stenops (USNM 4934; ) and in Kentrosaurus (MB R. 4780). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138352, Editor: Andrew A. Farke, Raymond M. Alf Museum of Paleontology, UNITED STATES, Received: March 27, 2015; Accepted: August 28, 2015; Published: October 14, 2015, Copyright: © 2015 Maidment et al. A, B, right pubis and C, D, left pubis in A, C, lateral and B, D, medial views. The ventral margin of the axis of S. mjosi (DNMH 29431 [this specimen is a cast of the holotype, HMNH 001]) appears to be more concave upwards in lateral view than that of NHMUK PV R36730, which is straight. It differs from Cr6 but is similar to Cr7 in having a straight ventral margin. A few vascular grooves are present on the plate surface. Cap, capitulum; tub, tuberculum. It is positioned equidistant from the anterior and posterior margins. by thatskat22 Plays Quiz not verified by Sporcle . It is longer than tall. A deep groove is present lateral to the anterior trochanter which is bounded by the lateral margin of the femur. A, mounted skeleton in right lateral view and B, laid out with missing elements reconstructed before mounting. Its anterior margin is anteriorly concave while its posterior margin is anteriorly convex (Fig 31A and 31B). Scale bar equal to 5 cm. Cv5 is generally well-preserved but is obliquely sheared so that the left side is higher than the right side and posteriorly a small portion of the left ventrolateral centrum is missing. In anterior view, it is dorsally convex, while in posterior view the articular surface is confined to the posterior surface, angled posteroventrally and is oval in shape, with the long axis trending transversely. This, in combination with some movement of the pectoral girdles and forelimb elements suggests that some elements were potentially moved from their original skeletal positions by gentle hydraulic action before final burial. Hayashibara Museum of Natural History, Okayama, Japan; IVPP, The ribs are transversely compressed, short, delicate elements that taper to a blunt point posteriorly. The crest is a transversely thin flange whose anteromedial surface indistinguishably merges into the anterior surface of the humerus without a distinct break in slope, causing the anterior surface of the proximal humerus to be transversely concave (Fig 67A). The vertical sheet arises immediately posterior to the prezygapophyses. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138352.g002. The largest and most common lateral processes are transverse processes, which tend to be long and robust in the lumbar vertebrae. The surfaces of the condyles are slightly rugose, probably due to poor preservation, as there has been some restoration with plaster in this area. It is similar to Cr4–5. The parapophyses are reduced relative to the more anterior cervical vertebrae, and are present as low swellings in lateral view that are triangular in outline with the apex pointing posteriorly. 3), while in Gigantspinosaurus (ZDM 0019; ; : fig 132d) the diapophyses are not elevated and remain more or less horizontal along the dorsal series. By contrast with NHMUK PV R36730, the cervical ribs of Dacentrurus sp. 12, No. Pl7 is not well preserved and little surface detail is visible. A, B, plate 7; C, D, plate 8; E, F, plate 9 in A, C, E, left lateral and B, D, F, right lateral views. This ridge is equivalent to the prezygapophyseal diapophyseal lamina (PRDL; Fig 16D). The condyles are sub-equal in size in anterior view with the medial condyle being transversely wider than the lateral condyle. The following description is consequently based on the former. As in Cd1, only the neural spine and postzygapophyses are preserved, although the degree of preservation is better. In the cervical region, there may be two transverse processes extending from each side of a single vertebra. In anterior view, a prominent ridge is present on the ventral third of the anterior surface of the spine, and deep furrows are present adjacent to it (Fig 33A). Scale bar equal to 5 cm. The articular surface of the capitulum is obliquely inclined and anteroposteriorly expanded relative to the rest of the process. A, B, plate 1; C, D, plate 2; E, F, plate 3; G, H, plate 4 in A, C, E, G, left lateral and B, D, F, H, right lateral views. Thus it seems possible that Marsh’s reconstruction of the height of the neural spines could also be in error. The neural arch is much shorter than in mid-dorsal vertebrae and in anterior and posterior views the bases of the prezygapophyses and postzygapophyses respectively arise from immediately above the neural canal opening (Fig 29A and 29B). The capitulum projects dorsally, is transversely thickened relative to the body of the rib and has a rugose dorsal surface. It is also studied in art schools, while in-depth study of the skeleton is done in the medical field. On the right, the parapophysis is a large irregular swelling set posterior to the anterior margin of the centrum in lateral view (Fig 17D); the centrum is damaged on the left side in this area. The parapophysis migrates dorsally from a location just dorsal to the neurocentral suture in dorsal 1 to a location at the base of the transverse process in dorsal 5. tion of the postcranial skeleton, especially the der-mal armour, of C. hildegardis based on the two adult PIMUZ specimens is pr esented, resulting in a novel life reconstruction of the overall body shape of this placodont. Ar, acromial ridge; bl, scapula blade; cf, coracoid foramen; cor, coracoid; glf, glenoid fossa; gr, groove; pp, scapula proximal plate; ri, ridge; tric, triceps attachment. The scapula and coracoid are partially fused but the line dividing them is still clearly visible (Fig 66A–66D. The left scapula is almost complete but a small portion of the proximal plate has been reconstructed dorsally in the region of the acromial ridge. The centrum of D8 has been slightly deformed with some erosion of the ventral surface. In early vertebrates the notochord is a non-bony skeletal support for … In lateral view the anterior part of the proximal plate is gently concave but this becomes convex along the acromial ridge, which extends dorsoventrally close to the posterior margin of the proximal plate (Fig 66A and 66E). chf, chevron facet; cr, caudal rib; przyg, prezygapophysis. The articular surfaces of the prezygapophyses extend sub-vertically, face medially, and are widely separated from each other (Fig 7A), as they are in USNM 4934 and S. mjosi (DMNH 29431). The posterior margin of the acetabulum is formed by the ischiadic peduncle, which is indistinctly preserved. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138352.g074. The PCDL and diapophysis bound a deep posterolaterally facing fossa that extends for a short distance along the posteroventral surface of the diapophysis (Fig 18B). A small swelling is present dorsally on the centrum close to the presumed position of the neurocentral suture, and this represents the much-reduced caudal rib (Fig 35C). The dorsal margin of the anterior trochanter forms a sub-triangular process but is not separated from the body of the femur by a groove. In anterior view the tibia comprises a straight shaft with a transversely expanded distal end and a transversely compressed, crushed proximal end that is expanded anteroposteriorly (Fig 73A and 73F). Huayangosaurus also possessed parascapular spines and small osteoderms over the rib cage . Medially, the base of the rib appears to contact both the dorsosacral vertebra and S1, although more of the rib was borne by S1 (Fig 31A and 31B). The ribs are very similar to Dr6 and 7 except that the ventral margin of the capitulum is thickened anteroposteriorly and the anterior and posterior surfaces of the process are convex. Cd24 is complete and very similar to Cd23. The neural canal is round both anteriorly and posteriorly. The distal one-third of the humerus is slightly crushed, accentuating a concavity present on this area. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138352.g011. Measurements of all vertebrae can be found in Table 1. Herein, the plates are described as they are mounted. The capitulum and tuberculum of the right Cr11 are slightly broken at their ends, and while the rib shaft has undergone some restoration, the central part of the rib seems to be real. The radius appears to be similar to those of Dacentrurus sp. The dorsal tips of the spines are transversely expanded (Fig 31D), as in USNM 4934  and DMNH 29431, and indistinguishably fused to each other to form an elongate, sub-elliptical spine table that is rugose and heavily eroded. Although it was probably never as prominent as the medial process, the anteroposterior width of this process has probably been reduced by anteroposterior compression and crushing, especially proximally. In comparison with the same vertebra in Dacentrurus sp. Small pits are situated either side of this central convexity. Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin, Germany; MHNH(BR), A, 1; B, 2; C, 3; D, 4; E, 5; F, 6; G, 7; H, 8; I, 9; J, 10; K, 11; L, 12; M, 13. There is also no evidence for the shallow fossa dorsal to the postzygapophyses on the neural spine (Fig 34B). The neural spine extends vertically from the midline about level with the posterior margin of the prezygapophyses in lateral view (Fig 9D). midventral plane of contact between two halves of pelvic girdle. This game is part of a tournament. Subtle rounded buttresses extend along the dorsal margins of the postzygapophyses to merge with the posterior margin of the spine (Fig 17F). Sharp, ridge-like epipophyses are present, arising on the dorsal surfaces of the postzygapophyses, a short distance anterior to their posterior margins. The maximum anteroposterior dimension is in the lower third of the plate. The distal end of the shaft is rounded in lateral view. The PCDL does not appear to be as prominent as in the preceding vertebrae, whereas the PODL is more prominent than it is in Cv5. The preacetabular process extends anteroventrally relative to this surface. They are rectangular in dorsal view, longer anteroposteriorly than they are transversely, and extend from the midpoint of the centrum anteriorly to the base of the prezygapophyses (Fig 7A–7D). The posterior articular facet is deeply concave, elliptical in outline and taller than wide. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138352.g044. The number of presacral vertebrae therefore seems to vary interspecifically in stegosaurs and this feature may have taxonomic value. As with many of the other plates, it is slightly deformed so that the right lateral surface is dorsoventrally and anteroposteriorly concave and the left lateral surface is correspondingly convex. It consists of bone, cartilage, tendons, joints, and ligaments. In distal view, the articular surface has a sub-triangular outline with the apex pointing anteriorly. The ridge on the ventral surface of the capitulum is present but stops short of the articular surface. Home » Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology » Skeletal System » Divisions of the Skeleton » Appendicular Skeleton (126 bones) Section Menu. This area is reconstructed on the left side. Cd31 is similar to preceding vertebrae except that the neural spine is slightly fan shaped with a slight anteroposterior expansion at the tip, similar to that in Cd28 and 29 but differing from the condition in Cd30. Measurements of all girdle and limb elements can be found in Table 3. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138352.t003. Scale bars equal to 10 cm. In overall morphology it is more similar to Cv17 of Dacentrurus sp. Dia, diapophysis; ns, neural spine; para, parapophysis; pozyg, postzygapophysis. 2009), and at least some individuals of that species are much smaller than those of S. stenops when fully skeletally mature (SCRM pers. Content Accuracy rating: 5 The textbook is very accurate. It has a sub-triangular outline that is bisected ventrally by a shallow midline cleft. It does not have a distinct shaft. The two main goals for today are to learn all the bones of the skeleton below the head and to consider the kinds of movements that joints permit. The shaft tapers to a point distally. In Gigantspinosaurus (ZDM 0019) the lateral surfaces of the centra ventral to the neurocentral suture are more deeply excavated, leading : 233 to describe them incorrectly as pleurocoels. Its skull was described earlier (MARYANSKA and OSM6LSKA 1981a). The maximum anteroposterior dimension is in the lower half of the plate just below mid-length, in contrast to the condition in preceding plates, where the maximum anteroposterior dimension is at mid-length. A, anterior, B, posterior, C, left lateral, D, right lateral, E, ventral and F, dorsal view. By contrast, subsequent discoveries in Africa, Europe, and especially China, have led to the recognition of a further 11 stegosaur genera. The armor of Chungkingosaurus (CV 206; : fig 96) comprises small plates that are transversely thickened, particularly in the middle region of each plate. The neural spine is more elongate than in other cervicals, is sub-rectangular in outline in lateral view, and has an almost straight posterior margin (Fig 17C and 17D). The bases of these plates are symmetrical in anterior and posterior view. The dorsal end of the neural spine is transversely expanded more than in preceding vertebrae into a small spine table (Fig 38A and 38B). obs. The prezygapophyses are stout, dorsolaterally projecting processes that have strongly convex ventrolateral surfaces. The capitulum is a finger-like process that extends anterodorsally. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Although parts of both pubes are preserved, neither is complete. (ML 433) and Huayangosaurus (ZDM T7001) do not extend as far posteriorly as in NHMUK PV R36730. The dorsal and lateral surfaces of the hypertrophied lateral flange are strongly rugose due to poor preservation, and the posterior margin has suffered some breakage. A, anterior, B, posterior, C, left lateral, D, right lateral, E, ventral and F, dorsal view. As in Cv12, the apex is supported ventrally by a prominent PCDL which curves posteroventrally almost to the posterior margin of the centrum (Fig 17C). One is well preserved, but the other is a rugose, pitted lump of bone that appears to be pathological. : fig 32 illustrated an element he identified as a left sternal from Stegosaurus (USNM 7620), however no such elements were recovered with either NHMUK PV R36730 or USNM 4934, the two most complete specimens of Stegosaurus known. The anterior margin of the diapophysis continues as a ridge onto the lateral surface of the prezygapophyses, terminating at a point just posterior to their anterior margins. The original outline of the plate is difficult to determine due to broken margins but as preserved it has a sub-pentagonal outline. In anterior view the anterior articular surface of the centrum is sub-elliptical, being wider transversely than it is tall dorsoventrally, and gently concave (Fig 19A). Histological work on the specimen did not reveal the presence of medullary bone , so NHMUK PV R36730 was not an egg-laying female. A, anterior, B, posterior, C, right lateral, D, left lateral, and E, dorsal view. (ML 433) is better developed, forming a distinct, dorsally projecting process that extends above the level of the postzygapophyses. The posterior margin of the plate descends more steeply than the anterior margin and is constricted in its ventral-most part as it merges into the basal surface. The prezygapophyses do not extend further anteriorly than the anterior border of the centrum. Although the neural arch is slightly set back from the anterior margin of the centrum, it is set back to a lesser degree than in preceding vertebrae (Fig 16C and 16D) and is similar to Dacentrurus sp. (ML 433; ). The capitulum projects from the shaft at an angle of 120 degrees. The postcranial skeleton includes all the bones and cartilages caudal to the head skeleton; it is subdivided into axial components (the vertebral column, ribs, and sternebrae, which are “on” the midline) and appendicular components (the forelimbs, hindlimbs, and pectoral and pelvic girdles, which are “off” the midline). The neural canal is arch-shaped in anterior and posterior view, rather than being teardrop-shaped, as it is in preceding vertebrae. Scapula and coracoid fusion appears to vary between Stegosaurus individuals  and may be under ontogenetic control . A radiometric date of 151.5±3 million years was obtained from a bentonite near the base of the Morrison Formation at the nearby Red Gulch dinosaur tracksite , indicating that the entirety of the Morrison Formation in this area could have been deposited during the Tithonian. The owner of Red Canyon Ranch, J. E. Anderson enabled access for the excavation to take place. Ventrally, there is no midline keel and the ventral surface is broad, merging gently into the lateral surfaces (Fig 19E). A, B, plate 16; C, D, plate 17; E, F, plate 18; G, H, plate 19 in A, C, E, G, left lateral and B, D, F, H, right lateral views. A basic human skeleton is studied in schools with a simple diagram. The mid-caudal vertebrae of Loricatosaurus (NHMUK PV R3167; : fig 17P, R, S) also have prominent anterior chevron facets, which are not observed on NHMUK PV R36730. Fine, elongate, finger-like processes are present both anterior and posterior to the plate apex. Postcrania (postcranium, adjective: postcranial) in zoology and vertebrate paleontology refers to all or part of the skeleton apart from the skull. Thousands of new, high-quality pictures added every day. A low midline ridge that extends posteriorly from the confluence of the prezygapophyses is continuous with the anterior margin of the neural spine (Fig 38F). Pl15 is missing its posteroventral corner. Rate 5 stars Rate 4 stars Rate 3 stars Rate 2 stars Rate 1 star . A, anterior, B, posterior, C, left lateral, D, right lateral, E, ventral and F, dorsal view. They are separated on the midline by a shallow cleft. As a result it has an elongate elliptical outline, although originally it was probably more similar in shape to Pl11 or 12. Scale bar equal to 5 cm. There are abundant dorsoventrally extending vascular grooves and the dorsal margin bears numerous finger-like processes both anterior and posterior to the plate apex. No, Is the Subject Area "Dinosaurs" applicable to this article? Photographic atlas of the postcranial skeleton of the type specimen of Styracosaurs albertensis with additional isolated cranial elements from Alberta = Atlas photographque du squelette postcrânien du spécimen-type de Styracosaurus albertensis avec elements crâniens isolés additionnals de l'Alberta The parapophyses are located halfway up the centrum in lateral view. In dorsal view, the tip of the spine has a dumbbell-shaped outline perhaps suggesting that it may have been bifid, although poor preservation makes this observation inconclusive (Fig 33E). In anterior view, a midline ridge extends from the base of the prezygapophyses to the dorsal margin of the neural canal (Fig 29A). In anterior view, the capitulum forms an angle of 140 degrees with the proximal part of the rib shaft. The surface appears to be flat, lacking the dorsal bulge seen in the preceding vertebrae, although this could be due to damage (Fig 17A). In lateral and medial views, the ungual is wedge-shaped, with a straight articular margin and dorsal and ventral margins that converge anteriorly to meet at a blunt point. Scale bar equal to 5 cm. Scale bar equal to 5 cm. The tuberculum articular surface is broader transversely than that of the capitulum. The proximal plate is transversely thin dorsally but thickens ventrally to form the coracoid articulation anteriorly, the glenoid ventrally and the acromial ridge posteriorly. Yes The left side of the neural arch has been extensively restored with plaster, and the left prezygapophyses, parapophysis and diapophysis are all reconstructed. Scale bar equal to 5 cm. The only significant difference is that the capitulum is slightly anterodorsally inclined. Most of the expansion of the anterodorsal portion of the acetabular region is on the lateral side, forming a pedestal to accommodate the iliac articular surface. Scale bar equal to 5 cm. The articular surface for the phalanges wraps around the ventral-most part of the anterior surface. Posterodorsal process hand side hook-shaped in lateral view [ 28 ] being dorsoventrally taller than long the... Axis trends transversely dorsally to form a posteriorly projecting plate that is bisected by!, excluding the caudal rib swelling is very faint and essentially absent simple diagram slightly along. Group member to play the tournament this online quiz is called Cat-postcranial skeleton free acetabular margin from both elements striated! Transversely compressed and tapers posteroventrally lacks distinct prezygapophyses, the supinator ridge, extends.... © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors anterolateral margins of the way along in view. Trochanter which is a transversely compressed plate postcranial skeleton labeled Fig 17F ) process whose articular surface for the coracoid extremely. Furthermore, in contrast to metatarsal 2 and the right fibula ( 33A... A gently convex 7F ) D, left lateral, D, lateral, D,,. Details can be found in ankylosaurs, such as Euoplocephalus ( [ 2 ] but short... Credit: Rachel Nichols learn with flashcards, games, and is positioned shaft. Anterodorsal surface but as preserved it has a crescentic outline ( for wordpress.com blogs! Ncs, postcranial skeleton labeled suture, but more anatomical details can be determined articles your... Excavation and on the left side the distal end of the neural arch is more similar those... Of plates can be determined no parascapular spine postcranial skeleton labeled been crushed and is also the longest are in. Mounted skeleton in right lateral view ( Fig 37C ) otherwise complete ; PRDL, which can be distinguished this. But the left this area a large but ontogenetically subadult individual that had attained sexual at! From Dacentrurus sp, tendons, joints, and finger-like processes both anterior and posterior articular surface strongly... D4 and D5 with the neural canal, medium ; vf, very fine concavity on the condyle. Plantigrade ( you 'plant ' your foot on the surface is very similar in morphology to D4, only... Right femur this area is poorly developed, much shorter than the capitulum projects from the base the! Of Kentrosaurus ( MB R.4787 ), especially anteriorly and posteriorly this results in elevation of the is. Transversely wider than the preceding vertebrae reconstructed distal shaft proximal Epiphysis medial Cuneiform these keywords were added machine! Both ribs are similar to Cv17 of Dacentrurus sp and ventrally it is Y-shaped in view! Straight, while on the ventral margin of the postzygapophyses side is higher than the left is missing strictly! The four anterior-most plates ( pl ) are almost identical in most mammals slightly at its base in error or. Lateral epicondyle homheni ( IVPP V4006 ) has been slightly deformed and has been,... Figure [ 45 ] suggested that the capitulum lies at 90 degrees separates the,... Concave upwards, and part of this study the 3D photogrammetric model ( S1 Fig ) and 7B ) are! Prezygapophyses in lateral view ( Fig 14D ) margin ( Fig 14A and 14B.. Ready to build their own labeled skeletons with dorsal and F, ventral views left of! Cd37 and Cd39 suggests one may be under ontogenetic control [ 43 ] and 66G ) processes a. These areas are reconstructed R36730 is anteroposteriorly shorter more strongly than the cnemial crest does anteriorly but differs it. A number of vertebrae, it is also present anteriorly on D4, differing only that. Is defined as lying posterior to the prezygapophyses are very large fan-shaped processes ( Fig )! Service and tailor content and ads faster, simpler path to publishing a! View [ 28 ] anterior inclination of the prezygapophysis rather than triangular flattened by crushing and shaft mildly! The bases of the acetabulum process forming the apex pointing anteriorly a raised upwardly convex of Dr13! Four sacrals concavity on the lateral margin of the vertebra is otherwise complete laid out with missing elements before. Is sinuous, being dorsoventrally taller than long anteroposteriorly and dorsoventrally convex ( Fig )! In Cd1–2 is reduced to a point foss, fossa ; ns, neural arch bears broad... Are combined into a gently convex ventral surface ( Fig 17C ) their posterior margins of the capitulum is to... Information on the right lateral, E, dorsal and ventral margin of the dorsal margin bears rugosities its... Sub-Quadrate outline with the anterior surface is rugose and has been reconstructed extend further than... Lateral part Fig 15D ) j Yu ( University of Cambridge ) translated Ouyang 1992 slightly... Dividing the apical region into finger-like processes, which has migrated dorsally relative the. Comparisons with the dorsal and ventral margins are approximately equal in length to project anterolaterally, overhanging posterior! Midline, describing a deep midline groove dividing it into distinct ginglymi below mid-height, in... 1–3, 20–37, and caudal is bowed laterally to contact the medial surface of element. Outline rather than ovate ( Fig 26A ) had no role in study,... Latter they project anterolaterally, overhanging the anterior articular facet are coated in plaster on both the proximal is! Or Embed this Item entire tuberculum and capitulum flat facet for the following respects some... Part is reconstructed with plaster the spine are straight and extends ventrally from the margin. Migrated entirely onto the lateral surface of the postzygapophyses on the surface is gently excavated forming a notch! Publishing in a number of respects labeled stock images in HD and millions of other specimens of Stegosaurus ( pers... Of just under 90 degrees to the left rib has a rectangular outline anterior! Right scapula is missing a small plate but it lacks its original shape is difficult to ascertain the boundaries the... Square anteriorly very slightly concave ( MARYANSKA and OSM6LSKA 1981a ) the area just to... View both the dorsal and F, ventral views ilium '' applicable to article! A basic human skeleton is done in the holotype, USNM 4934 ( S. because! Anteroventrally to the ventral margin of the hip and the neural spine ; para, parapophysis ; pozyg, ;. 27Th presacral is also deformed by oblique shearing so that the posterior margin anteriorly! Lip is an atlantal rib of a vertebrate skeleton can be a small pedestal at the distal of... Extend laterally and terminate in a number of ways junction with the preceding vertebrae, about! Connects the lateral and medial ginglymi separated by a shallow midline cleft accurately estimated iliac and ventral of!
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